Re: [DIYbio] Re: Student subject to criminal proceedings when he uploaded anothers thesis to a share site

"Steal"?

Also, is Jail not a ridiculously out of scale punishment for a dubious and nonviolent offence? This is completely indefensible.

On 27 May 2017 01:19:05 GMT+01:00, Josh Melnick <j.r.melnick@gmail.com> wrote:
Well I wonder what it feels like to have someone steal years of your life, it took many years of hard work for me to write my thesis and wouldn't want others to simply take my work out of my hands.


On Thursday, May 25, 2017 at 9:12:28 AM UTC-5, Abizar Lakdawalla wrote:

After three years of court proceedings in Colombia, a judge in Bogotá acquitted a graduate student yesterday (May 24) of charges he violated copyright law by sharing another researcher’s masters thesis online for a study group. If he had been found guilty, 29-year-old Diego Gomez could have faced years in prison.

This case must spark a serious debate over the necessity of Open Access,” Carolina Botero, director of an organization called Fundación Karisma, which has been helping Gomez with his legal case, said in a press release sent to The Scientist. “Today we celebrate that justice was made in an absurd case that could have set a bad precedent for access to knowledge in Colombia.”

Gomez was studying biology at the University of Quindio in Armenia in central Colombia several years ago when he uploaded another student’s thesis to Scribd, a digital library and e-book and audiobook subscription service. Unlike in the United States, copyright violations in Colombia are a criminal act, and the thesis author pressed charges.

“When uploading the thesis I never thought I was violating any law,” Gomez told The Scientist in 2014. “This type of literature is not of commercial interest, so I never thought I could do any damage to the author. On the contrary, I thought that I was giving him benefits on sharing his work.”

Colombia’s copyright law was born out of an agreement with the United States, intended to bolster trade. “Diego’s story also serves as a cautionary tale of what can happen when copyright law is broadened through international agreements,” the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocacy group for free speech and Internet access, posted on its website today. “But as is often the case when trade agreements are used to expand copyright law, the agreement only exported the U.S.’ extreme criminal penalties; it didn’t export our broad fair use provisions.”


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[DIYbio] Re: Student subject to criminal proceedings when he uploaded anothers thesis to a share site

Well I wonder what it feels like to have someone steal years of your life, it took many years of hard work for me to write my thesis and wouldn't want others to simply take my work out of my hands.


On Thursday, May 25, 2017 at 9:12:28 AM UTC-5, Abizar Lakdawalla wrote:

After three years of court proceedings in Colombia, a judge in Bogotá acquitted a graduate student yesterday (May 24) of charges he violated copyright law by sharing another researcher's masters thesis online for a study group. If he had been found guilty, 29-year-old Diego Gomez could have faced years in prison.

"This case must spark a serious debate over the necessity of Open Access," Carolina Botero, director of an organization called Fundación Karisma, which has been helping Gomez with his legal case, said in a press release sent to The Scientist. "Today we celebrate that justice was made in an absurd case that could have set a bad precedent for access to knowledge in Colombia."

Gomez was studying biology at the University of Quindio in Armenia in central Colombia several years ago when he uploaded another student's thesis to Scribd, a digital library and e-book and audiobook subscription service. Unlike in the United States, copyright violations in Colombia are a criminal act, and the thesis author pressed charges.

"When uploading the thesis I never thought I was violating any law," Gomez told The Scientist in 2014. "This type of literature is not of commercial interest, so I never thought I could do any damage to the author. On the contrary, I thought that I was giving him benefits on sharing his work."

Colombia's copyright law was born out of an agreement with the United States, intended to bolster trade. "Diego's story also serves as a cautionary tale of what can happen when copyright law is broadened through international agreements," the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocacy group for free speech and Internet access, posted on its website today. "But as is often the case when trade agreements are used to expand copyright law, the agreement only exported the U.S.' extreme criminal penalties; it didn't export our broad fair use provisions."

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[DIYbio] A question about generating plant calluses

Dear plant DIYers,

I am gearing up towards a plant DIY operation, and I was hoping you could answer a couple of questions that I am having a hard time finding on the internet. 

 1.  Do calluses need light to grow? Some protocols grow them in the dark, so I am confused.  If so, what lights/cycle do you recommend? My purpose for for growing calluses (calli?) would be two-fold: somatic embryogenesis, and transformation with Agrobacter in Crassula. 
 2.  Can I use parafilm to seal the callus-growing petri dishes? What about gas exchange? 
 3. Would the PPM in the callus media kill Agrobacter?

many thanks in advance!

Patricia


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Position : Sr. Java Developer with Splunk experience in VA

Hi,


Please find the below position and respond back to me with your profile to praveen@sritechsolutions.com

 

Position : Sr. Java Developer with Splunk experience

Location : Ashburn, VA

Duration:  6+ Months

 

We are looking for individuals who have the ability to write efficient Java code extracting, transforming and loading (ETL) data into Splunk. You must have experience with extracting or exporting data from third party systems using an API or programmatically, and then transforming or formatting the data before loading or pushing the extracted data into a third party application such as Splunk. Excellent communication skills will be required to be effective in this role.

Job Responsibilities:

  • Write high quality, efficient, extensible, commented and maintainable Java code
  • Complete ETL projects collaboratively and efficiently
  • Comment code and develop documentation to support written code
  • Perform code unit test, assembly test and integration testing.
  • Push code to a production environment


Required Experience:

  • Java J2EE skills – minimum 5+ years project experience
  • 8+ years of experience in software development and with Agile or Waterfall experience
  • 3+ years of core Java development: multithreading, dynamic loading, annotation, aspects, events
  • 2+ years of experience with REST, logging, dependency injection, messaging
  • API/REST experience – for loading data into third party systems
  • Ability to understand data models or database tables in third party systems or applications 
  • Experience with a pushing data into third party systems or applications such as Splunk a bonus
  • Advanced debugging, troubleshooting and diagnostic skills across large, distributed, multi-service environments
  • Java microservices


Thanks and Best Regards,

 

Praveen Kumar

SRI Tech Solutions Inc.

praveen@sritechsolutions.com

(T) 1-813-423-6500 X Ext: 149 (M) 248-462 -7719 (F) 813.423.6520

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Re: [DIYbio] What's going on with this in vitro seedling?


Callus. Sometimes they grow out of it, sometimes they continue to multiply, particularly if the medium is too rich in sugars.

On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 8:50 AM, MC <markyching@gmail.com> wrote:
Here's a picture of an Epidendrum seedling growing in vitro. What is the blob structure? Is it a callus, vitrification, or something else? I've noticed similar growths on some of my other cultures as well. Thanks.

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Re: [DIYbio] Customize Microelectrode array

My experiment is on Potassium ion channel, and the potassium ion is the sole player for the potential changes. I found a such fluorescence measuring system in reference ( https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v527/n7576/full/nature15709.html ) they use the fluorescent cationic dye thioflavin T (ThT) for potential quantification
But i did not find any protocol on thioflavin T, which i can apply on my experiment.  I have mailed the authors, but no reply.

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 9:19 PM, Bryan Jones <bryanjjones@gmail.com> wrote:
Like Nathan said, the Nature paper doesn't use any electrical signal from the bacteria. The bacteria made H2O2 and fluoresced. If your goal is to get an electrical signal, there are ways couple H2O2 levels to an electrical potential http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584901006657 

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 10:18 AM Abizar Lakdawalla <abizarl@gmail.com> wrote:
The voltage difference from inside a cell and the outside will be generated by ion pumps. Assuming that the difference in ions (Ca, Mg, Na, K, ...) will generate a differential charge inside the cell as compared to the outside. If you have a sense of which ions are responsible for the charge difference than the simplest way to detect this charge difference (= voltage) is by using intracellular dyes that measure Ca, Mg , ... or even more effective is to measure pH (H+ ions) with an intracellular dye. So put these bacteria under a fluorescence microscope and you will be able to see the voltage for every individual cell.


For detecting voltage changes in bulk you will have to make a microbial fuel cell (google it). 

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 8:01 AM, Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear Bryan,
I wish to do the voltage measuring experiment from IGEM 2008 project ( http://2008.igem.org/Team:Cambridge ) in https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7379/full/nature10722.html module.

On Wed, May 24, 2017 at 1:08 AM, Bryan Jones <bryanjjones@gmail.com> wrote:

What are you trying to find? I don't know if you can measure potential with a setup like that. I'm pretty sure you'd need a complete circuit somewhere. A potential only exists between two points if electrons are being pumped between them. You can't have your reference electrode completely electrically isolated from your culture and get electrons pumped between them. I'm not sure how you could measure electrical potential in a suspension, but my coworker measures the potential generated by biofilms growing on an electrode. Her setup might help point you in the right direction. Here are the description and image of her reactor:

"While bioreactor design has varied greatly throughout the years and between labs, the design of the reactor for microbiological studies has recently converged. Figure1.8A shows a photograph of the most recent generation of electrode bioreactors.The conical chamber holds 15 mL of fluid, contains a stir bar, and is kept at aconstant 30 °C with a circulating water bath. All three electrodes (working, reference and counter) are placed in close proximity in the same chamber. Theworking electrode is a polished graphite flag with a surface area of 3 cm2. The graphite flag is attached to a loop of platinum with a Teflon screw. The counterelectrode is a piece of platinum wire. The reference electrode communicates with the solution across a Vycor frit. Calomel and Ag/AgCl are common referenceelectrodes. These electrodes are connected to a potentiostat. This system allows bacterial respiration to be continuously monitored in the form of electrical current. An example of current production by a wild type G. sulfurreducens biofilm is shown in Figure 1.8B. At any time during growth different electrochemical techniques can be performed on the biofilm, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). This procedure scans current production at different electrical potentials. The rate at which the working electrode sweeps across different redox potentials can be varied. An example of a cyclic voltamogram is shown in Figure 1.8C."


On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 10:45 PM Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi, I want to measure the potential changes in cell suspension caused by Bacteria with classical electronics system. Please advice me how i can setup the electronics system for this procedure.

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Re: [DIYbio] Customize Microelectrode array

Like Nathan said, the Nature paper doesn't use any electrical signal from the bacteria. The bacteria made H2O2 and fluoresced. If your goal is to get an electrical signal, there are ways couple H2O2 levels to an electrical potential http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584901006657 

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 10:18 AM Abizar Lakdawalla <abizarl@gmail.com> wrote:
The voltage difference from inside a cell and the outside will be generated by ion pumps. Assuming that the difference in ions (Ca, Mg, Na, K, ...) will generate a differential charge inside the cell as compared to the outside. If you have a sense of which ions are responsible for the charge difference than the simplest way to detect this charge difference (= voltage) is by using intracellular dyes that measure Ca, Mg , ... or even more effective is to measure pH (H+ ions) with an intracellular dye. So put these bacteria under a fluorescence microscope and you will be able to see the voltage for every individual cell.


For detecting voltage changes in bulk you will have to make a microbial fuel cell (google it). 

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 8:01 AM, Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear Bryan,
I wish to do the voltage measuring experiment from IGEM 2008 project ( http://2008.igem.org/Team:Cambridge ) in https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7379/full/nature10722.html module.

On Wed, May 24, 2017 at 1:08 AM, Bryan Jones <bryanjjones@gmail.com> wrote:

What are you trying to find? I don't know if you can measure potential with a setup like that. I'm pretty sure you'd need a complete circuit somewhere. A potential only exists between two points if electrons are being pumped between them. You can't have your reference electrode completely electrically isolated from your culture and get electrons pumped between them. I'm not sure how you could measure electrical potential in a suspension, but my coworker measures the potential generated by biofilms growing on an electrode. Her setup might help point you in the right direction. Here are the description and image of her reactor:

"While bioreactor design has varied greatly throughout the years and between labs, the design of the reactor for microbiological studies has recently converged. Figure1.8A shows a photograph of the most recent generation of electrode bioreactors.The conical chamber holds 15 mL of fluid, contains a stir bar, and is kept at aconstant 30 °C with a circulating water bath. All three electrodes (working, reference and counter) are placed in close proximity in the same chamber. Theworking electrode is a polished graphite flag with a surface area of 3 cm2. The graphite flag is attached to a loop of platinum with a Teflon screw. The counterelectrode is a piece of platinum wire. The reference electrode communicates with the solution across a Vycor frit. Calomel and Ag/AgCl are common referenceelectrodes. These electrodes are connected to a potentiostat. This system allows bacterial respiration to be continuously monitored in the form of electrical current. An example of current production by a wild type G. sulfurreducens biofilm is shown in Figure 1.8B. At any time during growth different electrochemical techniques can be performed on the biofilm, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). This procedure scans current production at different electrical potentials. The rate at which the working electrode sweeps across different redox potentials can be varied. An example of a cyclic voltamogram is shown in Figure 1.8C."


On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 10:45 PM Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi, I want to measure the potential changes in cell suspension caused by Bacteria with classical electronics system. Please advice me how i can setup the electronics system for this procedure.

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Re: [DIYbio] Customize Microelectrode array

The voltage difference from inside a cell and the outside will be generated by ion pumps. Assuming that the difference in ions (Ca, Mg, Na, K, ...) will generate a differential charge inside the cell as compared to the outside. If you have a sense of which ions are responsible for the charge difference than the simplest way to detect this charge difference (= voltage) is by using intracellular dyes that measure Ca, Mg , ... or even more effective is to measure pH (H+ ions) with an intracellular dye. So put these bacteria under a fluorescence microscope and you will be able to see the voltage for every individual cell.


For detecting voltage changes in bulk you will have to make a microbial fuel cell (google it). 

On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 8:01 AM, Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear Bryan,
I wish to do the voltage measuring experiment from IGEM 2008 project ( http://2008.igem.org/Team:Cambridge ) in https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7379/full/nature10722.html module.

On Wed, May 24, 2017 at 1:08 AM, Bryan Jones <bryanjjones@gmail.com> wrote:

What are you trying to find? I don't know if you can measure potential with a setup like that. I'm pretty sure you'd need a complete circuit somewhere. A potential only exists between two points if electrons are being pumped between them. You can't have your reference electrode completely electrically isolated from your culture and get electrons pumped between them. I'm not sure how you could measure electrical potential in a suspension, but my coworker measures the potential generated by biofilms growing on an electrode. Her setup might help point you in the right direction. Here are the description and image of her reactor:

"While bioreactor design has varied greatly throughout the years and between labs, the design of the reactor for microbiological studies has recently converged. Figure1.8A shows a photograph of the most recent generation of electrode bioreactors.The conical chamber holds 15 mL of fluid, contains a stir bar, and is kept at aconstant 30 °C with a circulating water bath. All three electrodes (working, reference and counter) are placed in close proximity in the same chamber. Theworking electrode is a polished graphite flag with a surface area of 3 cm2. The graphite flag is attached to a loop of platinum with a Teflon screw. The counterelectrode is a piece of platinum wire. The reference electrode communicates with the solution across a Vycor frit. Calomel and Ag/AgCl are common referenceelectrodes. These electrodes are connected to a potentiostat. This system allows bacterial respiration to be continuously monitored in the form of electrical current. An example of current production by a wild type G. sulfurreducens biofilm is shown in Figure 1.8B. At any time during growth different electrochemical techniques can be performed on the biofilm, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). This procedure scans current production at different electrical potentials. The rate at which the working electrode sweeps across different redox potentials can be varied. An example of a cyclic voltamogram is shown in Figure 1.8C."


On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 10:45 PM Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi, I want to measure the potential changes in cell suspension caused by Bacteria with classical electronics system. Please advice me how i can setup the electronics system for this procedure.

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Re: [DIYbio] Customize Microelectrode array



On Thu, May 25, 2017 at 8:01 AM, Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear Bryan,
I wish to do the voltage measuring experiment from IGEM 2008 project ( http://2008.igem.org/Team:Cambridge ) in https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7379/full/nature10722.html module.

Hi Shambo,
can you be more specific? That Nature paper doesn't mention any electrochemical-based sensing as far as I can tell. The device it shows is a microfluidic, but doesn't appear to have any electrodes integrated, rather they just have an LED underneath and image using a microscope with digital camera. 

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Re: [DIYbio] Customize Microelectrode array

Dear Bryan,
I wish to do the voltage measuring experiment from IGEM 2008 project ( http://2008.igem.org/Team:Cambridge ) in https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7379/full/nature10722.html module.

On Wed, May 24, 2017 at 1:08 AM, Bryan Jones <bryanjjones@gmail.com> wrote:

What are you trying to find? I don't know if you can measure potential with a setup like that. I'm pretty sure you'd need a complete circuit somewhere. A potential only exists between two points if electrons are being pumped between them. You can't have your reference electrode completely electrically isolated from your culture and get electrons pumped between them. I'm not sure how you could measure electrical potential in a suspension, but my coworker measures the potential generated by biofilms growing on an electrode. Her setup might help point you in the right direction. Here are the description and image of her reactor:

"While bioreactor design has varied greatly throughout the years and between labs, the design of the reactor for microbiological studies has recently converged. Figure1.8A shows a photograph of the most recent generation of electrode bioreactors.The conical chamber holds 15 mL of fluid, contains a stir bar, and is kept at aconstant 30 °C with a circulating water bath. All three electrodes (working, reference and counter) are placed in close proximity in the same chamber. Theworking electrode is a polished graphite flag with a surface area of 3 cm2. The graphite flag is attached to a loop of platinum with a Teflon screw. The counterelectrode is a piece of platinum wire. The reference electrode communicates with the solution across a Vycor frit. Calomel and Ag/AgCl are common referenceelectrodes. These electrodes are connected to a potentiostat. This system allows bacterial respiration to be continuously monitored in the form of electrical current. An example of current production by a wild type G. sulfurreducens biofilm is shown in Figure 1.8B. At any time during growth different electrochemical techniques can be performed on the biofilm, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). This procedure scans current production at different electrical potentials. The rate at which the working electrode sweeps across different redox potentials can be varied. An example of a cyclic voltamogram is shown in Figure 1.8C."


On Mon, May 22, 2017 at 10:45 PM Shambo Hore <shambo.hore88@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi, I want to measure the potential changes in cell suspension caused by Bacteria with classical electronics system. Please advice me how i can setup the electronics system for this procedure.

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Re: [DIYbio] Re: Biomedical Engineering or Computer Science Engineering

On Tue, May 23, 2017 at 2:37 PM, Ayush Mahajan <bluemb99@gmail.com> wrote:
> Yes, I already know how to code, reverse engineer and rest of the stuff
> which a computer engineer can do, the thing is I want to take BioTechnology
> for my undergrad but I'm scared because I've never been good with the theory
> part.I'm interested in coding genome, hacking the wetware and everything
> Biohacker could do but every time I think about Biotech a voice whispers me
> in my head saying "Would you be able to do it ?"

Sounds like I had a similar experience with being good at coding when
I chose a school, but wanting more. The cooler stuff. I've not heard
of computer related protests as much as I have about biotech. Light a
candle and shed some light on the darkness.

Biotech /school/ is mostly just fancy cooking, and learning the theory
is too much to remember for the average student. The 'computer'
processes of life are lots controlled chemical reactions. You don't
need to be so smart as a chemistry major, or a chemical engineer...
biotech has less math requirements than they do. Biotech also has less
math requirements than Computer Science.

Humans engineered electronic computers taught in Computer Science. It
has been around (in text/print/books) for a long time.
Biotech is about reverse-engineering innumerable systems we didn't
engineer. It is like CS for the stuff we didn't engineer.

We are reverse engineering ourselves and all the other species. We are
reverse engineering chemistry, and thus physics.

I know a little about Indian school systems, and if that's where
you're heading towards, you won't have much room to explore
side-studies in your school. The academic programs are very structured
and have strict/tight timelines.

I'd recommend studying biotech, simply because the hands-on and theory
is a lot wider ranging in topic than CS will give you. Also, you can
learn CS at pretty much any hackerspace, free online courses, reading
self-teach books, etc... It is more like 'common knowledge' than
biotech and chemistry/physics. For CS you need electricity and some
relatively common and cheap electronics gizmos. Biotech/lab-science
involves a lot of heavy (mass-wise) stuff, has lots of steps that take
a long time and require a special cook and special kitchen. You can
compile code anywhere your laptop has charge... not as easy to say the
same about a really complex Biotech project.

You can do it. There were many underperforming Biotech students who
received better grades than I did. It's all in how you play the game.
You won't be an underperformer. I know because you're already
self-motivated enough to come post on this online forum. Most students
lack self-motivation. Keep your motivation. It is what keeps you going
in the face of being penniless and without a job. It is a strong
driver of innovation.


All the best,
-Nathan

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[DIYbio] Student subject to criminal proceedings when he uploaded anothers thesis to a share site

After three years of court proceedings in Colombia, a judge in Bogotá acquitted a graduate student yesterday (May 24) of charges he violated copyright law by sharing another researcher's masters thesis online for a study group. If he had been found guilty, 29-year-old Diego Gomez could have faced years in prison.

"This case must spark a serious debate over the necessity of Open Access," Carolina Botero, director of an organization called Fundación Karisma, which has been helping Gomez with his legal case, said in a press release sent to The Scientist. "Today we celebrate that justice was made in an absurd case that could have set a bad precedent for access to knowledge in Colombia."

Gomez was studying biology at the University of Quindio in Armenia in central Colombia several years ago when he uploaded another student's thesis to Scribd, a digital library and e-book and audiobook subscription service. Unlike in the United States, copyright violations in Colombia are a criminal act, and the thesis author pressed charges.

"When uploading the thesis I never thought I was violating any law," Gomez told The Scientist in 2014. "This type of literature is not of commercial interest, so I never thought I could do any damage to the author. On the contrary, I thought that I was giving him benefits on sharing his work."

Colombia's copyright law was born out of an agreement with the United States, intended to bolster trade. "Diego's story also serves as a cautionary tale of what can happen when copyright law is broadened through international agreements," the Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocacy group for free speech and Internet access, posted on its website today. "But as is often the case when trade agreements are used to expand copyright law, the agreement only exported the U.S.' extreme criminal penalties; it didn't export our broad fair use provisions."

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[DIYbio] Re: How much bioinformatics at your DIY lab?

The most sophisticated is using standard assemble to reference tools within Galaxy for a fungal genome that I had MWG Operon sequence for me on an Illumina HiSeq machine. See about halfway down this page for a brief description.
http://roningenetics.org/Sequencing.html

Tom

On Tuesday, May 23, 2017 at 4:45:46 PM UTC-4, Patrik D'haeseleer wrote:
Hoping for some quick feedback - How much use to people at your community lab make of bioinformatics? What is the most sophisticated piece of computational work you've done so far? 

At Counter Culture Labs, we have someone doing molecular dynamics simulations for protein linker design. And at BioCurious, we mined some Arabidopsis gene expression data to design novel spatiotemporal promoters. That's about the most sophisticated we've done so far. Other than that, it's mostly some Blast, primer design, codon optimization etc - nothing fancy.

I've been asked to be on a National Academy of Sciences panel this Thursday about synbio and DIYbio (together with Drew Endy, and Tom Burkett from BUGSS), and I'm supposed to talk about how computational tools are enhancing ease of use in DIY labs. Figured I'd do a quick poll of the rest of the community...

Thanks!

Patrik

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Re: [DIYbio] Re: Biomedical Engineering or Computer Science Engineering

On 05/25/2017 04:03 AM, Mega [Andreas Stuermer] wrote:
> Tell the voice in your head to shut up, a lot of people that are less intelligent than you have done it already ;)
>

Repeating an offlist email:
On 05/24/2017 12:43 PM, Ayush Mahajan wrote:
> thanks, I'm thinking to get Biotech as minor and CSE as majors would
> this help me overcome my fear?

Only you know your fears very well. Others have their own fears.

Sometimes fear can be F.E.A.R. ==> False Evidence Appearing Real.

Finding people doing what you are interested in and asking them how they do it
will dispel any groundless fears, or show you that they do some things
that you are not good at yet, or are avoiding, or maybe even involve fears you have.

Biomedical Engineering channels one into working for companies that get
their designs qualified for medical use, which can be laborious and costly,
especially in the US.

Studying biotech, while also getting a degree in CS
will help you find work outside the medical field. But both are fairly broad,
not guaranteeing any particular kind of work...

Always be thinking of what work is going to be like, and will you like that,
and ask people that are getting experience again and again what that is like.

also think a lot about what the world needs that you can deliver, or you and some
others can deliver...

If you don't enjoy following others orders like me, that means
learning how to run businesses, and how to get some dirt/land/buildings owned or long term leased
to operate on, so you can do your own thing manufacturing-wise.

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